Hamar Tribe of Ethiopia, Africa - African Tribes and People
Location: Ethiopia, Africa
Neighboring Peoples: Banna
Types of Art:
History: They belong to a group of culturally distinct people known as the Sidamo. Although they are racially mixed with the Bushman (San) hunters who originally inhabited the region, they do not have any Bushman features. Authorities agree that they are clearly a mixture of the Caucasian and Negroid races. Please note: The San are not Negroid, but Mongoloid.
Economy: Most of the Hamer are cattle breeders.
Social Systems: The Hamer live in camps that consist of several related families. The families live in tents arranged in a circle, and the cattle are brought into the center of the camp at night. When the campsite is being set up, beds for the women and young children are built first; then the tent frame is built around it. The tents are constructed with flexible poles set in the ground in a circular pattern. The poles are bent upward, joining at the top, then tied. The structures are covered with thatch during the dry season and canvas mats during the rainy season. Men and older boys usually sleep on cots in the center of the camp, near the cattle.
Herds belonging to the Hamer-Banna consist mainly of cattle, although there are some sheep and goats. Camels are used for riding and as pack animals. Most Hamer-Banna plant fields of sorghum at the beginning of the rainy season before leaving on their annual nomadic journey. Some households also plant sesame and beans. Because the crops are usually left unattended, the yields are low. Few households grow enough grain to last through the year.
One striking characteristic of the Hamer-Banna men is that they indulge in elaborate hair-dressing. They wear a clay "cap" that is painted and decorated with feathers and other ornaments. Much time is spent in preparing the hair, and care must be taken to protect it from damage. This is one reason the men often sleep on small, cushioned stools. A well-dressed man will wear a toga-like cloth and carry a spear and a stool. Women also commonly wear colorful toga-like garments.
Men may marry as many women as they
like, but only within their own tribe. A "bride price" of cattle and other goods
is provided by the prospective husband and his near relatives. A typical
household consists of a woman, her
children, and a male protector. A man may be the protector of more than one
household, depending on the number of wives he has. Also, men are sometimes
assigned the responsibility of protecting a divorced woman, a widow, or the wife
of an absent husband (usually his brother). Marriage celebrations include
feasting and dancing. Young girls as well as boys are circumcised.
Religion: The Hamer-Banna are 90%
Sunni Muslim. They observe the five basic teachings of Islam, which include
acknowledging that Allah is the only god, praying, fasting, giving alms to the
poor, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca. However, many elements of their
traditional religion are still practiced. For instance, they believe that
natural objects (rocks, trees, etc.) have spirits. They also believe in jinnis,
or spirits that are capable of assuming human or animal form and exercising
supernatural influence over people.