Ahaggaren Tuareg: People of Africa
Location: Ahaggaren Tuaregs of Algeria, Africa, are part of a larger group of Berber-speaking Tuaregs.
Types of Art:
History: They are nomads who raise cattle and live in an area that stretches across North Africa. This territory extends from Western Sahara to the northern portion of Western Sudan.
Although the origin and early history
of the Tuaregs are cloudy, these tribal nomads appear to have traveled
down from North Africa in a series of migrations as early as the 7th century.
By the end of the 14th century, Tuareg tribes had established themselves
as far south as the Nigerian border.
Economy: The Tuaregs of Algeria are primarily shepherds. Each tribe holds collective property rights on special grazing grounds. They also do a small amount of farming on this land, using irrigation and hand-held hoes. Their main crop is wheat, but they also grow some barley and grain, dates, figs, apricots, grapes, and a number of vegetables. Although they raise camels, donkeys, sheep, and goats, they only eat meat at feasts. Milk, both fresh and sour, is a staple food, and is used to make butter and cheese.
Social Systems: The chief
characteristics of the Tuaregs include the unity of their language, their
alphabet (which uses tifinagh characters), their complex social organization,
and their class structure.
Each tribe is governed by a chief and an assembly of adult males. The tribes are grouped into three confederations, each with its own sheik and council of rulers. These three confederations are under the leadership of one paramount chief, called an amenokal, and a council of nobles. Succession to headship is matrilineal (passed down through the lineage of the women).
Tuareg society also has an elaborate structure. The main division is between the noble class and the various serf classes. In most Tuareg groups, there are also whole tribes of ineslemen or marabouts. These are "holy people" who, like other tribes, are led by their own chiefs. Among some of the Berbers, such tribes are considered to be different from ordinary men. They are believed to possess the powers of protection and healing, even after death.
The lowest class does both the manual
and domestic labor. This class is made up of ethnically mixed peoples who
live in a cooperative relationship with their masters, the Tuareg. Many
were originally slaves, either taken during warfare or bought at Indonesian
slave markets. Three slave groups in the lower class are the iklan, the
inaden, and the harratin. The iklan take care of herding, cooking, and
other domestic chores. The inaden work as artisans and blacksmiths for
the Tuaregs. The harratin are Negroid tenant farmers who work as share-croppers.
Sadly, the Tuaregs have very little respect for these groups.